Review: Misbehaving Science: Controversy and the Development of Behavior Genetics (Aaron Panofsky)

www.goodreads.com/book/show/18526647-misbehaving-science

libgen.org/book/index.php?md5=ac86923b7bf1ed0639abf0e1c22810f8

The book is a sociologist trying to interpret the history of behavior genetics into sociology theories. I didn’t pay much attention to their theorizing, being familiar with that kind of nonsense or useless theory. It generally employs the kind of kind of terminology that sociologists are known for: reductionism here, genetic determinism there, racism, eugenics, Nazi, blahblah. It is somewhat dated despite just being released. This is the nature of legacy publishers, since it takes so long go get thru their machinery. It spends a lot of time talking about how the molecular (GWA) studies did not fulfill the dreams of behavior geneticists. This is however semi-moot now due to the fact that recent studies have replicated findings of g-genes and used GCTA to estimate heritability values that make extreme environmentalism impossible to hold onto.

It, however, did contain a lot of interesting quotes from unnamed persons, and various other stuff. It is recommended for those who have an interest in the history of behavior genetics and the race and IQ debate. I cannot give it 4 or 5 stars despite it being interesting due to the aforementioned problems.

Admixture in the Americas: Introduction, partial correlations and IQ predictions based on ancestry

For those who have been living under a rock (i.e. not following my on Twitter), John Fuerst have been very good at compiling data from published research. Have a look at Human Varieties with the tag Admixture Mapping. He asked me to help him analyze it and write it up. I gladly obliged, you can read the draft here. John thinks we should write it all into one huge paper instead of splitting it up as is standard practice. The standard practice is perhaps not entirely just for gaming the reputation system, but also because writing huge papers like that can seem overwhelming and may take a long time to get thru review.

So the project summarized so far is this:

  • Genetic models of trait admixture predict that mixed groups will be in-between the two source population in the trait in proportion to their admixture.
  • For psychological traits such as general intelligence (g), this has previously primarily been studied unsystematically in African Americans, but this line of research seems to have dried up, perhaps because it became too politically sensitive over there.
  • However, there have been some studies using the same method, just examining illness-related traits (e.g. diabetes). These studies usually include socioeconomic variables as controls. In doing so, they have found robust correlations between admixture at the individual level and socioeconomic outcomes: income, occupation, education and the like.
  • John has found quite a lot of these and compiled the results into a table that can be found here.
  • The results clearly show the expected results, namely that more European ancestry is associated with more favorable outcomes, more African or American less favorable outcomes. A few of them are non-significant, but none contradicts. A meta-analysis of this would find a very small p value indeed.
  • One study actually included cognitive measures as co-variates and found results in the generally expected direction. See material under the headline “Cognitive differences in the Americans” in the draft file.
  • There is no necessity that one has to look at the individual level. One can look at the group level too. For this reason John has compiled data about the ancestry proportions of American countries and Mexican regions.
  • For the countries, he has tested this against self-identified proportions, CIA World Factbook estimates, skin reflection data and stuff like that, see: humanvarieties.org/2014/10/19/racial-ancestry-in-the-americas-part-1-genomic-continental-racial-admixture-estimate-and-validation/ The results are pretty solid. The estimates are clearly in the right ballpark.
  • Now, genetic models of the world distribution of general intelligence clearly predict that these estimates will be strongly related to the countries’ estimated mean levels of general intelligence. To test this John has carried out a number of multiple regressions with various controls such as parasite prevalence or cold weather along with European ancestry with the dependent variable being skin color and national achievement scores (PISA tests and the like). Results are in the expected directions even with controls.
  • Using the Mexican regional data, John has compared the Amerindian estimates with PISA scores, Raven’s scores, and Human Development Index (a proxy for S factor (see here and here)). Post is here: humanvarieties.org/2014/10/15/district-level-variation-in-continental-racial-admixture-predicts-outcomes-in-mexico/

This is where we are. Basically, the data is all there, ready to be analyzed. Someone needs to do the other part of the grunt work, namely running all the obvious tests and writing everything up for a big paper. This is where I come in.

The first I did was to create an OSF repository for the data and code since John had been manually keeping track of versions on HV. Not too good. I also converted his SPSS datafile to one that works on all platforms (CSV with semi-colons).

Then I started writing code in R. First I wanted to look at the more obvious relationships, such as that between IQ and ancestry estimates (ratios). Here I discovered that John had used a newer dataset of IQ estimates Meisenberg had sent him. However, it seems to have wrong data (Guatemala) and covers fewer relevant countries (25 vs. 35) vs. than the standard dataset from Lynn and Vanhanen 2012 (+Malloyian fixes) that I have been using. So for this reason I merged up John’s already enormous dataset (126 variables) with the latest Megadataset (365 variables), to create the cleverly named supermegadataset to be used for this study.

IQ x Ancestry zero-order correlations

Here’s the three scatterplots:

Americas_Euro_Ancestry_IQ12data

IQ_amer

IQ_Afro

So the reader might wonder, what is wrong with the Amerindian data? Why is about nill? Simply inspecting it reveals the problem. The countries with low Amerindian ancestry have very mixed European vs. African which keeps the mean around 80-85 thus creating no correlation.

Partial correlations

So my idea was this, as I wrote it in my email to John:

Hey John,I wrote my bachelor in 4 days (5 pages per day), so now I’m back to working on more interesting things. I use the LV12 data because it seems better and is larger.

One thing that had been annoying me that was correlations between ancestry and IQ do not take into account that there are three variables that vary, not just two. Remember that odd low correlation Amer x IQ r=.14 compared with Euro x IQ = .68 and Afr x IQ = -.66. The reason for this, it seems to me, is that the countries with low Amer% are a mix of high and low Afr countries. That’s why you get a flat scatterplot. See attached.

Unfortunately, one cannot just use MR with these three variables, since the following equation is true of them 1 = Euro+Afr+Amer. They are structurally dependent. Remember that MR attempts to hold the other variables constant while changing one. This is impossible.
The solution is seems to me is to use partial correlations. In this way, one can partial out one of them and look at the remaining two. There are six possible ways to do this:Amer x IQ, partial out Afr = -.51
Amer x IQ, partial out Euro = .29
Euro x IQ, partial out Afr = .41
Euro x IQ, partial out Amer = .70
Afr x IQ, partial out Euro = -.37
Afr x IQ, partial out Amer = -.76
Assuming that genotypically, Amer=85, Afr=80, Euro=97 (or so), then these results are completed as expected direction wise. In the first case, we remove Afr, so we are comparing Amer vs. Euro. We expect negative since Amer<Euro
In two, we expect positive because Amer>Afr
In three, we expect positive because Euro>Amer
In four, we expect positive because Euro>Afr
In five, we expect negative because Afr<Amer
In six, we expect negative because Afr<Euro
All six predictions were as expected. The sample size is quite small at N=34 and LV12 isn’t perfect, certainly not for these countries. The overall results are quite reasonable in my review.
Estimates of IQ directly from ancestry
But instead merely looking at it via correlations or regressions, one can try to predict the IQs directly from the ancestry. Simple create a predicted IQ based on the proportions and these populations estimated IQs. I tried a number of variations, but they were all close to this: Euro*95+Amer*85+Afro*70. The reason to use Euro 95 and not, say, 100 is that 100 is the IQ of Northern Europeans, in particular the British (‘Greenwich Mean IQ’). The European genes found in the Americans are mostly from Spain and Portugal, which have estimated IQs of 96.6 and 94.4 (mean = 95.5). This creates a problem since the US and Canada are not mostly from these somewhat lower IQ Europeans, but the error source is small (one can always just try excluding them).

So, does the predictions work? Yes.

Now, there is another kind of error with such estimates, called elevation. It refers to getting the intervals between countries right, but generally either over or underestimating them. This kind of error is undetectable in correlation analysis. But one can calculate it by taking the predicted IQs and subtracting the measured IQs, and then taking the mean of these values. Positive values mean that one is overestimating, negative means underestimation. The value for the above is: 1.9, so we’re overestimating a little bit, but it’s fairly close. A bit of this is due to USA and CAN, but then again, LCA (St. Lucia) and DMA (Dominica) are strong negative outliers, perhaps just wrong estimates by Lynn and Vanhanen (the only study for St. Lucia is this, but I don’t have the norms so I can’t calculate the IQ).

I told Davide Piffer about these results and he suggested that I use his PCA factor scores instead. Now, these are not themselves meaningful, but they have the intervals directly estimated from the genetics. His numbers are: Africa: -1.71; Native American: -0.9; Spanish: -0.3. Ok, let’s try:

PCA_predicted_IQs

Astonishingly, the correlation is almost the same. .01 from. However, this fact is less overwhelming than it seems at first because it arises simply because the correlations between the three racial estimates is .999 (95.5

Meisenberg’s new book chapter on intelligence, economics and other stuff

G.M. IQ & Economic growth

I noted down some comments while reading it.

In Table 1, Dominican birth cohort is reversed.

 

“0.70 and 0.80 in world-wide country samples. Figure 1 gives an impression of

this relationship.”

 

Figure 1 shows regional IQs, not GDP relationships.

“We still depend on these descriptive methods of quantitative genetics because

only a small proportion of individual variation in general intelligence and

school achievement can be explained by known genetic polymorphisms (e.g.,

Piffer, 2013a,b; Rietveld et al, 2013).”

 

We don’t. Modern BG studies can confirm A^2 estimates directly from the genes.

E.g.:

Davies, G., Tenesa, A., Payton, A., Yang, J., Harris, S. E., Liewald, D., … & Deary, I. J. (2011). Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic. Molecular psychiatry, 16(10), 996-1005.

Marioni, R. E., Davies, G., Hayward, C., Liewald, D., Kerr, S. M., Campbell, A., … & Deary, I. J. (2014). Molecular genetic contributions to socioeconomic status and intelligence. Intelligence, 44, 26-32.

Results are fairly low tho, in the 20’s, presumably due to non-additive heritability and rarer genes.

 

“Even in modern societies, the heritability of

intelligence tends to be higher for children from higher socioeconomic status

(SES) families (Turkheimer et al, 2003; cf. Nagoshi and Johnson, 2005; van

der Sluis et al, 2008). Where this is observed, most likely environmental

conditions are of similar high quality for most high-SES children but are more

variable for low-SES children. “

 

Or maybe not. There are also big studies that don’t find this interaction effect. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heritability_of_IQ#Heritability_and_socioeconomic_status

 

“Schooling has

only a marginal effect on growth when intelligence is included, consistent with

earlier results by Weede & Kämpf (2002) and Ram (2007).”

In the regression model of all countries, schooling has a larger beta than IQ does (.158 and .125). But these appear to be unstandardized values, so they are not readily comparable.

“Also, earlier studies that took account of

earnings and cognitive test scores of migrants in the host country or IQs in

wealthy oil countries have concluded that there is a substantial causal effect of

IQ on earnings and productivity (Christainsen, 2013; Jones & Schneider,

2010)”

 

National IQs were also found to predict migrant income, as well as most other socioeconomic traits, in Denmark and Norway (and Finland and the Netherland).

Kirkegaard, E. O. W. (2014). Crime, income, educational attainment and employment among immigrant groups in Norway and Finland. Open Differential Psychology.

Kirkegaard, E. O. W., & Fuerst, J. (2014). Educational attainment, income, use of social benefits, crime rate and the general socioeconomic factor among 71 immigrant groups in Denmark. Open Differential Psychology.

 

 

Figures 3 A-C are of too low quality.

 

 

“Allocation of capital resources has been an

element of classical growth theory (Solow, 1956). Human capital theory

emphasizes that individuals with higher intelligence tend to have lower

impulsivity and lower time preference (Shamosh & Gray, 2008). This is

predicted to lead to higher savings rates and greater resource allocation to

investment relative to consumption in countries with higher average

intelligence.”

 

Time preference data for 45 countries are given by:

Wang, M., Rieger, M. O., & Hens, T. (2011). How time preferences differ: evidence from 45 countries.

They are in the megadataset from version 1.7f

Correlations among some variables of interest:

r
             SlowTimePref Income.in.DK Income.in.NO   IQ lgGDP
SlowTimePref         1.00         0.45         0.48 0.57  0.64
Income.in.DK         0.45         1.00         0.89 0.55  0.59
Income.in.NO         0.48         0.89         1.00 0.65  0.66
IQ                   0.57         0.55         0.65 1.00  0.72
lgGDP                0.64         0.59         0.66 0.72  1.00

n
             SlowTimePref Income.in.DK Income.in.NO  IQ lgGDP
SlowTimePref          273           32           12  45    40
Income.in.DK           32          273           20  68    58
Income.in.NO           12           20          273  23    20
IQ                     45           68           23 273   169
lgGDP                  40           58           20 169   273

So time prefs predict income in DK and NO only slightly worse than national IQs or lgGDP.

 

 

“Another possible mediator of intelligence effects that is difficult to

measure at the country level is the willingness and ability to cooperate. A

review by Jones (2008) shows that cooperativeness, measured in the Prisoner‟s

dilemma game, is positively related to intelligence. This correlate of

intelligence may explain some of the relationship of intelligence with

governance. Other likely mediators of the intelligence effect include less red

tape and restrictions on economic activities (“economic freedom”), higher

savings and/or investment, and technology adoption in developing countries.”

 

There are data for IQ and trust too. Presumably trust is closely related to willingness to cooperate.

Carl, N. (2014). Does intelligence explain the association between generalized trust and economic development? Intelligence, 47, 83–92. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2014.08.008

 

 

“There is no psychometric evidence for rising intelligence before that time

because IQ tests were introduced only during the first decade of the 20th

century, but literacy rates were rising steadily after the end of the Middle Age

in all European countries for which we have evidence (Mitch, 1992; Stone,

1969), and the number of books printed per capita kept rising (Baten & van

Zanden, 2008).”

 

There’s also age heaping scores which are a crude measure of numeracy. AH scores for 1800 to 1970 are in the megadataset. They have been going up for centuries too just like literacy scores. See:

A’Hearn, B., Baten, J., & Crayen, D. (2009). Quantifying quantitative literacy: Age heaping and the history of human capital. The Journal of Economic History, 69(03), 783–808.

 

 

“Why did this spiral of economic and cognitive growth take off in Europe

rather than somewhere else, and why did it not happen earlier, for example in

classical Athens or the Roman Empire? One part of the answer is that this

process can start only when technologies are already in place to translate rising

economic output into rising intelligence. The minimal requirements are a

writing system that is simple enough to be learned by everyone without undue

effort, and a means to produce and disseminate written materials: paper, and

the printing press. The first requirement had been present in Europe and the

Middle East (but not China) since antiquity, and the second was in place in

Europe from the 15thcentury. The Arabs had learned both paper-making and

printing from the Chinese in the 13thcentury (Carter, 1955), but showed little

interest in books. Their civilization was entering into terminal decline at about

that time (Huff, 1993). “

 

Are there no FLynn effects in China? They still have a difficult writing system.

 

“Most important is that Flynn effect gains have been decelerating in recent

years. Recent losses (anti-Flynn effects) were noted in Britain, Denmark,

Norway and Finland. Results for the Scandinavian countries are based on

comprehensive IQ testing of military conscripts aged 18-19. Evidence for

losses among British teenagers is derived from the Raven test (Flynn, 2009)

and Piagetian tests (Shayer & Ginsburg, 2009). These observations suggest

that for cohorts born after about 1980, the Flynn effect is ending or has ended

in many and perhaps most of the economically most advanced countries.

Messages from the United States are mixed, with some studies reporting

continuing gains (Flynn, 2012) and others no change (Beaujean & Osterlind,

2008).”

 

These are confounded with immigration of low-g migrants however. Maybe the FLynn effect is still there, just being masked by dysgenics + low-g immigration.

 

 

“The unsustainability of this situation is obvious. Estimating that one third

of the present IQ differences between countries can be attributed to genetics,

and adding this to the consequences of dysgenic fertility within countries,

leaves us with a genetic decline of between 1 and 2 IQ points per generation

for the entire world population. This decline is still more than offset by Flynn

effects in less developed countries, and the average IQ of the world‟s

population is still rising. This phase of history will end when today‟s

developing countries reach the end of the Flynn effect. “Peak IQ” can

reasonably be expected in cohorts born around the mid-21stcentury. The

assumptions of the peak IQ prediction are that (1) Flynn effects are limited by

genetic endowments, (2) some countries are approaching their genetic limits

already, and others will fiollow, and (3) today‟s patterns of differential fertility

favoring the less intelligent will persist into the foreseeable future. “

 

It is possible that embryo selection for higher g will kick in and change this.

Shulman, C., & Bostrom, N. (2014). Embryo Selection for Cognitive Enhancement: Curiosity or Game-changer? Global Policy, 5(1), 85–92. doi:10.1111/1758-5899.12123

 

 

“Fertility differentials between countries lead to replacement migration: the

movement of people from high-fertility countries to low-fertility countries,

with gradual replacement of the native populations in the low-fertility

countries (Coleman, 2002). The economic consequences depend on the

quality of the migrants and their descendants. Educational, cognitive and

economic outcomes of migrants are influenced heavily by prevailing

educational, cognitive and economic levels in the country of origin (Carabaña,

2011; Kirkegaard, 2013; Levels & Dronkers, 2008), and by the selectivity of

migration. Brain drain from poor to prosperous countries is extensive already,

for example among scientists (Franzoni, Scellato & Stephan, 2012; Hunter,

Oswald & Charlton, 2009). “

 

There are quite a few more papers on the spatial transferability hypothesis. I have 5 papers on this alone in ODP: openpsych.net/ODP/tag/country-of-origin/

But there’s also yet unpublished data for crime in Netherlands and more crime data for Norway. Papers based off these data are on their way.

 

Review: Understanding human history (Michael H. Hart)

www.goodreads.com/book/show/1737823.Understanding_Human_History

gen.lib.rus.ec/search.php?req=Understanding+Human+History&open=0&view=simple&column=def

I think Elijah mentioned this book somewhere. I can’t find where.

The basic idea of the book is to write a history book that does take known population differences into account. Normal history books don’t do that. Generally, the chapters are only very broad sketches of some period or pattern. Much of it is plausible but not too well-argued. If one looks in the references for sources given, one can see that a large number of them are to some 1985 edition of Encyclopedia Britannica. Very odd. This is a post-Wikipedia age, folks. Finding primary literature on some topic is really easy. Just search Wikipedia, read its sources. The book is certainly flawed due to the inadequate referencing of claims. Many claims that need references don’t have any either.

On the positive side, there are some interesting ideas in it. The simulations of population IQ’s in different regions is clearly a necessary beginning of a hard task.

Probably you should only read this book if you are interested in history, population genetics and differential psychology beyond a pop science superficial level.

The author is an interesting fellow. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_H._Hart

 

Bouchard’s new review paper on Genes, Evolution, Intelligence is excellent!

Seriously. Read it.

Behavior Genetics (Impact Factor: 2.61). 03/2014; DOI: 10.1007/s10519-014-9646-x

Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT I argue that the g factor meets the fundamental criteria of a scientific construct more fully than any other conception of intelligence. I briefly discuss the evidence regarding the relationship of brain size to intelligence. A review of a large body of evidence demonstrates that there is a g factor in a wide range of species and that, in the species studied, it relates to brain size and is heritable. These findings suggest that many species have evolved a general-purpose mechanism (a general biological intelligence) for dealing with the environments in which they evolved. In spite of numerous studies with considerable statistical power, we know of very few genes that influence g and the effects are very small. Nevertheless, g appears to be highly polygenic. Given the complexity of the human brain, it is not surprising that that one of its primary faculties-intelligence-is best explained by the near infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.

Genes, Evolution and Intelligence

Admixture study for neanderthal ancestry and psychological traits

We have a neanderthal genome.

It is possible to estimate an individuals neanderthal ancestry. 23andme does this.

It is possible to use the admixture study design to see what the effects of some kind of ancestry origin is.

What are we waiting for? They can use the SNP datasets they have used GWA studies for psychological traits.

Girlfriend [12th may 2014]: I bet theres an autism/neanderthal link

Any takers?

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, embryo slection

Kuliev, Anver, and Yury Verlinsky. “Preimplantation diagnosis: a realistic option for assisted reproduction and genetic practice.” Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology 17.2 (2005): 179-183.
Purpose of review
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) allows genetically
disadvantaged couples to reproduce, while avoiding the
birth of children with targeted genetic disorders. By
ensuring unaffected pregnancies, PGD circumvents the
possible need and therefore risks of pregnancy termination.
This review will describe the current progress of PGD for
Mendelian and chromosomal disorders and its impact on
reproductive medicine.
Recent findings
Indications for PGD have expanded beyond those used in
prenatal diagnosis, which has also resulted in improved
access to HLA-compatible stem-cell transplantation for
siblings through preimplantation HLA typing. More than
1000 apparently healthy, unaffected children have been
born after PGD, suggesting its accuracy, reliability and
safety. PGD is currently the only hope for carriers of
balanced translocations. It also appears to be of special
value for avoiding age-related aneuploidies in in-vitro
fertilization patients who have a particularly poor prognosis
for a successful pregnancy; the accumulated experience of
thousands of PGD cycles strongly suggests that PGD can
improve clinical outcome for such patients.
Summary
PGD would particularly benefit poor prognosis in-vitro
fertilization patients and other at-risk couples by improving
reproductive outcomes and avoiding the birth of affected
offspring.
Verlinsky, Yury, et al. “Over a decade of experience with preimplantation genetic diagnosis: a multicenter report.” Fertility and sterility 82.2 (2004): 292-294.
Harper, Joyce C., and Sioban B. SenGupta. “Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: state of the art 2011.” Human genetics 131.2 (2012): 175-186.
I made this:

Review: The intelligence of dogs

The Intelligence of Dogs A Guide to the Thoughts, Emotions, and Inner Lives of Our Canine Companions Stanley Coren 320p

 

This book is not very technical, has almost no numbers or sources in it. It contains a wealth of at times funny anecdotes. It also contains references to shitty science, mostly Gardner and Sternberg’s anti-g theories. It also has a wrong description of crytallized vs. fluid g. However, aside from all these flaws, it is well worth reading if one is interested in dog (canine) intelligence. I would have liked to see e.g. a factor analysis of the author’s proposed dog IQ test, to see if there is g factor for dogs as well.

 

 

As a psychologist, dog trainer, and avowed dog lover, I set out to de­

scribe the mental abilities that are present in every dog. I also went

one step further—namely, to explore how various breeds differ in their

capacities and behaviors. Before I could do this, though, a bit of

groundwork was in order. I began by looking at the origins of dogs,

because any animal’s mental ability is shaped and limited by its bio­

logical makeup and the forces of evolution that have worked on it.

Then I briefly examined how scientists have viewed dogs’ minds and

detailed some of the controversy about the nature of the canine mind

and consciousness. Finally, I looked at the various types of dog intelli­

gence and described how dog owners could actually measure their

own dog’s abilities. While I hoped to make it clear that no breed of

dog is without merit or purpose, I also pointed out that not all dog

breeds are created equal in terms of their cleverness and mental skills.

 

Starts out well.

 

 

And then there was Lassie. . . .

 

The dog that may have done the most to shape the popular concep­

tion of dogs and their intelligence was a ch ara cter born in a short story

wri tten by Eric Knight in 1938. This story was la te r expanded into a

best-selling book, and, in 1943, it was translated into a heart-warming

tear jerker of a film called Lassie Come Home. Lassie, the wo r ld ’s best-

known collie, was not only affectionate and courageous but clearly

nearly human in her intelligence and understanding.

 

Actually, Lassie, as portrayed on the screen, is not a lovely female

dog at all, but ra th e r a deception perpetrated by a long line of female

impersonators. For nine generations, the dogs that have played Lassie

have all been male descendants of the first Lassie, actually a dog named

Pal. Male collies were preferred for the part, since they are larger and

less timid than females. The viewing audience seems never to have

noticed the relevant anatomical differences. In fact, all we seemed to

notice was th a t the dog we were watching was a collie with a white

blaze on its face. Changes in markings as one dog was substituted for

another for different stunts and tricks seem to have passed us by, just as

easily as the telltale signs that should have told us Lassie was a lad.

 

heh!

 

 

At first glance, seventeen thousand years may not seem like a long

time—after all, dinosaurs roamed the e arth one hundred fifty million

years ago. Yet our own species, Homo sapiens, did not ap pea r until

three hundred thousand years ago. Neanderthal man was still predom­

inant in Europe until forty thousand years ago, and the first types of

humans physically indistinguishable from modern humans appeared

between thirty and thirty-five thousand years ago. Asian tribes first

crossed the Bering Strai t to begin human occupation of the Americas

twenty-five thousand years ago. It is interesting to note that the first

evidence of organized agriculture is only ten thousand years old—

which is three to seven thousand years after the ea rliest proof that

dogs had established their companionship with humans. Falling within

the same general time frame as these Russian fossils is a finding in

Iraq of domesticated dog remains th a t are dated at around fourteen

thousand years ago.

 

This date for modern humans is wrong.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomically_modern_humans

 

The term anatomically modern humans[1] (AMH) or anatomically modern Homo sapiens[2] (AMHS) refers in paleoanthropology to individual members of the species Homo sapiens with an appearance consistent with the range of phenotypes in modern humans.

Anatomically-modern humans evolved from archaic Homo sapiens in the Middle Paleolithic, about 200,000 years ago.[3] The emergence of anatomically-modern human marks the dawn of the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens,[4] i.e. the subspecies of Homo sapiens that includes all modern humans. The oldest fossil remains of anatomically-modern humans are the Omo remains, which date to 195,000 (±5,000) years ago and include two partial skulls as well as arm, leg, foot and pelvis bones.[5][6]

Other fossils include the proposed Homo sapiens idaltu from Herto in Ethiopia that are almost 160,000 years old[7] and remains from Skhul in Israel that are 90,000 years old.[8]

 

 

When mitochondrial DNA from dogs and wolves are compared,

they are found to differ by only around 1 to 2 percent. To give you an

idea of how close this similarity is, this is in the same range as the dif­

ferences found between different races of humans. Scientists consider

this to be clear evidence th a t the closest anc estor of dogs, and the

species th a t was probably domesticated first, was the wolf. Please note

th a t I said the “closest” and not necessarily the “only” ancestor of dogs

was the wolf.

 

very interesting, if true. No source given.

 

Searching a bit…

 

www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ggs/72/4/72_4_229/_article

 

To test the hypothesis that the domestic dogs are derived from several different ancestral gray wolf populations, we compared the sequence of the displacement (D)-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 24 breeds of domestic dog (34 individual dogs) and 3 subspecies of gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus, C. l. pallipes and C. l. chanco; 19 individuals). The intraspecific sequence variations within domestic dogs (0.00~3.19%) and within wolves (0.00~2.88%) were comparable to the interspecific variations between domestic dogs and wolves (0.30~3.35%). A repetitive sequence with repeat units (TACACGTA/GCG) that causes the size variation in the D-loop region was also found in both dogs and wolves. However, no nucleotide substitutions or repetitive arrays were specific for domestic dogs or for wolves. These results showed that there is a close genetic relationship between dogs and wolves. Two major clades appeared in the phylogenetic trees constructed by neighbor-joining and by the maximum parsimony method; one clade containing Chinese wolf (C. l. chanco) showed extensive variations while the other showed only slight variation. This showed that there were two major genetic components both in domestic dogs and in wolves. However, neither clades nor haplotypes specific for any dog breed were observed, whereas subspecies-specific clades were found in Asiatic wolves. These results suggested that the extant breeds of domestic dogs have maintained a large degree of mtDNA polymorphisms introduced from their ancestral wolf populations, and that extensive interbreedings had occurred among multiple matriarchal origins.

 

So, yea, something like that.

 

 

An interesting rep o r t of some Russian rese arch on foxes directly

bears on the issue of the domestication of dogs. The experiment was

started in the 1940s by the Russian geneticist Dmitri Belyaev, who

worked in a Siberian laboratory with other biologists who were trying

to domesticate silver foxes. Their aim was pract ical as w’ell as scien­

tific, since they wanted to breed these animals for th e ir beautiful fur,

which brings a high price on the world market. Since the wild fox can

be qu i te sn a p p ish an d ch u r l ish , th e sc ien t is ts w e re also try in g to c re a te

a more docile strain of silver foxes th a t would allow themselves to be

handled and more easily managed. For this reason, only the most gen­

tle of the foxes were allowed to breed. Over a span of only twenty gen­

erations, the scientists managed to develop tame, domesticated foxes.

 

Several surprises resulted from these breeding experiments. In their

behavior, these tame foxes became very doglike. They began to look for

human company ra th e r than running from it. They began to wag their

tails in response to the same types of situations th a t cause domestic

dogs to wag their tails. They also developed a tendency to lick people’s

faces. These domesticated foxes also began to vocalize with yips and

barks much like dogs and quite unlike adul t wild foxes and wolves,

which seldom vocalize. There were even important physical changes.

Females began to come into heat twice a year, ju s t as domestic dogs

do. The ears of some of the foxes became floppy and more doglike.

Unfortunately for the experimenters, also following the p a t te rn for

domestic dogs, these tamed foxes were often born with fur th a t was

multicolored with patches of different shades, which greatly lowered

their market value!

 

The domesticated silver fox experiment:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domesticated_silver_fox

 

Original source: www.americanscientist.org/issues/feature/1999/2/early-canid-domestication-the-farm-fox-experiment

 

 

All canids also enjoy an occasional roll in ca r rio n and other foul­

smelling filth. It is likely that this behavior began as a hunting strategy.

Many prey animals, such as antelopes or gazelles, have a good sense of

smell and can detect an approaching canine predator. However, by

rolling in antelope or gazelle droppings, which of course give off a

safe, familiar smell, the h un te r masks its scent and so can get much

closer before he is detected.

 

In domestic dogs this behavior is no longer functional, but seems to

have persisted because dogs have an aesthetic appreciation of odors,

which some experts have compared to our own fondness for music; it

has no real purpose but seems to give the dog pleasure. Some owners

find the practice offensive and have tried to eliminate it by punishing

their dogs, but this generally is to no avail. Occasionally, one can find a

perfume or other scent th a t the dog likes (usually one with a musk

base), w h ich , w h e n d ab b e d on e i th e r sid e of the dog’s th roa t and

behind its ears, may cause the dog to pass up opportunit ies to roll in

the n eares t pile of dung or o th e r smelly refuse. This sometimes back­

fires, however.

 

My daughter by marriage, Kari, had a marvelous mixed-breed dog

named Tessa, whom we often took along when we went to our little

hideaway farm. At the re a r of the farm is a large drainage canal,

which, at various times of the year, takes on a ra th e r pungent odor if

st irred up. When the canal reached this pitch of smelliness, Tessa

always took the very first opportunity to plunge into the canal and coat

herself in the muck. This always resulted in our hosing her down and

then leaving h e r outside for several hours until the essence wore off.

Once, p r io r to a morning walk, I decided to see if I could avoid the

inevitable wallow in the smelly canal by p re trea ting her with some

aftershave lotion th a t smelled quite fine to me. She seemed a bit puz­

zled by all of this, and when I opened the gate, instead of the usual

chase-the-stick romp th a t starts our walks, she made a direct beeline

for the scum-filled canal. She re tu rn ed afterward, soaking wet and

odoriferous, ready to start our play. Apparently she felt a need to mask

her uncharacteristically perfumed aura with something more aestheti­

cally pleasing to her canine mind.

 

Interesting.

 

 

Much of the interbreeding across the canid species has been delib­

erately encouraged or arranged by human beings. Eskimos and natives

of the high north are known to cross th eir working dogs regularly with

wolves to try to get sled dogs with g re a ter stamina and larger size.

Usually this process involves tying a bitch in season to a stake in a

region th a t wolves are known to frequent. An interested male wolf will

often stop and partake of such an opportunity, and the bitches seem to

accept the at tention willingly. Of course, when times are h a rd e r and

food is scarce, the bitch may be viewed as a candidate for lunch, rather

than love, by the wolf pack.

 

*Chuckle*

 

 

Suppose we knew th a t one pa rt icula r member of the canid family (call

it canid X) was the sole ancestor of domestic dogs. You might think

th a t this would allow us to say th a t if canid X has a certain behavior or

shows a specific mental ability, the same behavior and mental ability

must exist in dogs. Sadly, this would not be true. Even if domestic dogs

contained the genes of only one of the wild canids, they would not be

simply tamed versions of the wild variety. The process of domestication

itself has made dogs different, not only physically but also psychologi­

cally, from their wild cousins.

 

In breeding dogs, people have systematically selected for puppylike

characteristics. The technical term for this is neoteny, meaning th a t the

adul t maintains many of the chara c te rist ic s of the immature animal.

This neoteny involves both physiology and behavior in the animals.

 

and also humans: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoteny

 

 

Behaviorally, our domestic dogs are also more puppylike. When

dogs lick people’s faces, as most domestic dogs will, they are actually

mimicking the behavior of puppies, who will lick their m o th er ’s face to

get h e r to regurgitate food for them. Hence your dog’s kisses really

mean th a t it is trea tin g you as its p a ren t and, of course, asking for a

snack.

 

 

A colleague of mine has pointed out th a t a book with the title The Intel­

ligence o f Dogs could be very short. He noted that, as a psychologist, I

could simply choose to define intelligence, or at least thought, as some­

thing th a t occurs only in humans, and this would spare me a lot of

work and research time. Many psychologists, biologists, and ethologists

(particularly those who like to call themselves “behaviorists”) do exactly

this. For instance, in a recent research book entitled Cognitive Psychol­

ogy and Information Processing, three research psychologists (R. Lach-

man, J. L. Lachman, and E. R. Butterfield) conclude th a t “whenever

higher mental processes are involved, we heartily disagree that human

and animal behavior are necessarily governed by the same principles.”

 

The situation is not simple, however, and many eminent scientists

have disagreed with this ra th e r negative conclusion. Charles Darwin,

for example, wrote in The Descent o f Man that the only difference

between the intelligence of humans and th a t of most of th e ir lower

mammalian cousins “is one of degree and not of k in d.” He went on to

say that “the senses and intuitions, the various emotions and faculties,

such as love, memory, attention, curiosity, imitation, reason, etc., of

which man boasts, may be found in an incipient or even sometimes in

a well-developed condition, in the lower animals.”

 

Obviously, ne i th er Darwin nor any sensible person will try to say

that the intelligence of dogs is the same as that of humans in all ways.

There are clear limits to a dog’s intelligence. A dog has never written

an o pera or novel n o r ever designed bridges or explored cybernetic

theory. No dog has ever been elected as a president or p rem ier of a

country (except in an uncomplimentary metaphoric sense, as defined

by the opposition parties).

 

As I write this, it dawns on me that I might be wise to stay away from

the subject of dogs occupying political posts, since there are stories of

dog-kings. Probably the best known of these comes from an Icelandic

saga th a t tells of an upland king known as Eystein the Bad. Eystein con­

quered the people of Drontheim and then made his son Onund their

king. The people of Drontheim were not at all happy with this a rrange­

ment and ended Onund’s reign abruptly and violently. To show his dis­

pleasure at this turn of events, Eystein returned to Drontheim, ravaged

the land, and reduced the people to total subjugation. Then, to cap his

vengeance, he offered the survivors a truly dishonorable choice: They

would be ruled either by one of Eystein’s slaves or by one of his dogs.

The people of Drontheim apparently felt that they could more easily

manipulate the decisions of the dog. As kings go, the dog (whose name

was Saur) was apparently not a bad ruler. The saga claims th a t the dog

“had the wisdom of three men.” It also reports that the dog “spoke one

word for every two that it barked,” presumably meaning that it had dif­

ferent whimpers, growls, and other sounds that were interpreted as sig­

nifying different ideas and moods. The people responded by according

the dog all the expected pomp and ceremony that are due to a ruler.

They furnished him with a throne, so that he “sat upon a high place as

kings are wont to sit.” They also provided him with regal apparel, such

as a gold collar. His attendants or courtiers, whose duty it was to carry

their canine king on their shoulders whenever the weather turned bad,

wore silver chains to signify th eir office.

 

Unfortunately, the story ends ra th e r badly, with what has always

appeared to me to be the culmination of some form of plot or a secret

revolt against the dog-king. Obviously, such a revolt could not simply

involve assassination, since this might make Eystein suspicious and

cause him to re tu rn to mete out fur ther vengeance and perhaps even

to appoint a still less desirable king. Instead, the plotters capitalized on

a chance occurrence. One day, wolves broke into the royal cattle pens.

Instead of calling for help from the men-at-arms, the court iers ( trai­

tors?) rallied the dog-king to defend his livestock. With all of the brav­

ery th a t the sagas accord to one born into royalty, he immediately

mounted an attack, but, being badly outnumbered, he was killed in

battle. Thus ended the reign of Saur, the canine king.

 

There are also things like: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergeant_Stubby,

 

 

Primitive people, however, had no problem allowing dogs to have

intelligence and even suggested they had speech. For example, when

Europeans began to colonize the African Congo, they encountered

many indigenous stories about the dog as the bringer of fire, the great

hunter, and even as a teacher. A typical example comes from the

Nyanga people, whose folk hero Nkhango supposedly negotiated for

fire with the dog Rukuba: The dog would steal some fire from the high

god Nyamurairi in exchange for eternal friendship from humans. After

keeping his p a r t of the bargain, Rukuba joined with Nkhango on the

hunt, and together they achieved grea t success, even against danger ­

ous prey, such as the wild boar. As the dog’s cleverness became more

and more obvious, Nkhango learned to tru s t him with even more

tasks. Finally, Nkhango made a decision to use the dog as a messenger.

Rukuba, however, did not want to be a messenger; he wanted to lie by

the fire in comfort, and, since he was the one who had supplied the fire

in the first place, he felt that it was his right to do so. Musing th a t peo­

ple would always be sending him to this place o r th a t on errands,

because he was clever and trustworthy and could speak, the dog

Rukuba concluded, “If I could not speak, then I could not be a messen­

ger. So I will simply never speak again!” From that day on, the dog of

the Nyanga ceased speaking; he still has the intelligence and capacity

to do so but simply chooses not to.

 

 

Unfortunately, when Descartes threw out intellect, reason, and con­

sciousness for animals, it had more than scientific and intellectual con­

sequences. In denying animals these higher mental abilities, Descartes

also denied them feeling and emotion. According to him, the cry an

animal releases when struck does not indicate pain but is ra th e r the

equivalent of the clanging of springs or chimes you might h e a r after

you drop a mechanical clock or some wind-up toy. Nicolas de Male-

branche, a French philosopher who extended Descartes’s work, picked

up on this idea when he claimed th a t animals “eat without pleasure,

cry’ without pain, act without knowing it; they desire nothing, fear

nothing, know nothing.”

 

The upshot was that Descartes’s analysis was subsequently used to

justify massive cruelty to animals. B e rn a rd le Bovier de Fontenelle

once visited Malebranche a t the Oratory on the rue Saint-Honore.

While they were conversing, he saw Malebranche kick a p regnant dog

who had been rolling at his feet. The dog let out a cry of pain, and

Fontenelle sprang forward to defend it. Malebranche passed the inci­

dent off, saying “Don’t you know th a t it does not feel?” In due time,

such reasoning led to experiments where animals were nailed to

boards by their four paws in order to do surgery on them to see the cir­

culatory system working in a live being. People who pitied the poor

creatures for their pain were laughed at as unknowing fools. After all,

these were not to be considered sentient and feeling creatures; they

were only machines being disassembled for study. Accordingly, moral

concern was inappropriate, since the pain and suffering of animals

were not real.

 

One might be tempted to dismiss these attitudes as the unenlight­

ened thinking of the past. However, viewpoints ju s t this extreme are

still found today, nearly three hun d red fifty years after Descartes’s

theorizing. For instance, P. Carruthers, in the prestigious Journal o f

Philosophy, recently wrote of animals that, “since th e ir experiences,

including th e ir pains, are nonconscious ones, th e ir pains are of no

immediate moral concern. Indeed, since all of the mental states of

brutes are nonconscious, their injuries are lacking even in indirect

moral concern.”

 

It is interesting to note that scientists and philosophers with these

views often act and believe quite differently in their personal lives. The

extreme notion th a t only humans have consciousness and intelligence

and th a t only human pain and suffering is of any significance is ap pa r ­

ently much more difficult to hold in private life, especially if one is liv­

ing with a pet animal. For example, history tells us that Descartes had

a dog named Monsieur Grat—quite a pampered pet, to whom

Descartes spoke in the same manner th a t we speak to our own dogs.

He worried about the dog’s health and referred to things that the dog

liked o r did not like and sometimes privately speculated on what the

dog might be thinking. So much concern for an unconscious machine?

Would one talk to a machine such as a wristwatch and speculate on its

health and its likes? Obviously, in Descartes’s everyday interactions,

the presumption of consciousness for his dog was not only convenient,

but perhaps unavoidable.

 

Dont claim that filosofical beliefs have no effects on peoples behavior!

 

There is also Clarence Darrow: www.sfu.ca/~swartz/freewill1.htm#intro

 

 

I initially wrote this chapter during a very gray and rainy spring. The

day I finished it, more than a week had gone by without any noticeable

sunshine. That p a rt icular afternoon, though, the clouds seemed to part

and a burs t of afternoon sunshine shone through the window, forming

a big golden patch on the hardwood floor. Completing my work, I was

moving toward the kitchen to get a cup of coffee when I noticed my

Cavalier King Charles spaniel Wiz standing in the circle of light. He

looked up at the window and then down at the floor as if he were con­

templating something, and then he deliberately tu rned and ran from

the room. Within a mat te r of moments, however, he re appeared drag­

ging a large terry-cloth towel th a t he had stolen from the bathroom.

He pulled the towel into the cente r of the patch of sun, looked at it,

and then pushed at one lumpy section with both front paws. Having

ar ranged the towel to his satisfaction, he then circled around and set­

tled down for a nap on his newly created bed in the warm afternoon

sun. If one of my young grandchi ldren had done this, I would have

said th a t she felt the warmth of the sun and thought that it would be

nice to take a nap in it. Then, remembering the towel in the bathroom,

she went and retrieved it so that she could sunbathe more comfortably.

 

All this requires consciousness, intelligence, and planning. Does ray

dog Wiz have it? It is easier for me simply to recognize th a t my dog’s

behaviors in this situation were similar to behaviors th a t are accompa­

nied by consciousness in a human faced with the same situation. In the

absence of any evidence to the contrary, I will presume th a t I am deal­

ing with consciousness and intelligent behavior in my dog as well.

 

It seems to me that people requiring better evidence than this are setting an unreasonably high evidential standard.

 

 

Dogs can go even further than these kinds of assessments, to a point

where virtually everyone would concede th a t they are really counting.

One spring afternoon, I was part icipating in a dog obedience tr ial on

Vancouver Island in Bri tish Columbia, Canada. One of the o ther dog

competitors and I had finished for the day, and we were out walking in

a large nearby field with his lovely female Labrador retriever named

Poco. The man had a box of large rubber retrieving lures with him,

and he explained to me that he would use these to demonstrate that his

dog could count.

 

“She can count to four quite reliably and to five with only an occa­

sional miss,” he said. “I’ll show you how it works. Pick a number from

one to five.”

 

I picked the number three. While the dog watched, her master

tossed three lures out into the high grass of the field. The lures were

tossed in different directions and to different distances. After I got

down on my hands and knees and verified that the lures were not visi­

ble from the dog’s eye level at the starting position, my companion

simply told the dog, “Poco, fetch,” without pointing or other cues. The

dog went out to the most recently thrown lure, picked it up, and

brought it back. Her master took it from h e r and then repeated “Poco,

fetch,” causing the dog to s ta r t to cast about and search for the next

one. After she brought back the second lure, her master again com­

manded, “Poco, fetch,” and the dog went out after the th ird and last

lure. Removing the last lure from the dog’s mouth, he once again

ordered, “Poco, fetch.” At this, the dog simply looked at him, barked

once, and moved to his left side, to the usual heel position, and sat

down.

 

He then turned to me and said, “She knows th a t she’s retrieved all

three and that that is all there were. She keeps a running count. When

there are no more lures to search for, she lets me know with th a t

‘They’re all here, stupid’ bark and simply gets ready for the next thing

th a t I want her to d o .’’

 

We repeated the exercise for the bet ter p a rt of a half hour, varying

the number of lures up to five, with me and another spectator tossing

the lures and sending the dog to fetch as sort of a check to see if some­

thing hidden in the way the items were placed or the commands given

accounted for h e r success. Once we even had someone toss out a set of

lures in such a way that the dog saw where they landed but the person

giving Poco commands didn’t know how many lures were thrown and

therefore couldn’t give any covert clues to the dog like those Clever

Hans used in his counting tricks. None of these variations seemed to

matter, and even at five, the dog never missed the count once.

 

Dogs even seem to have a rudimentary ability to add and subtract.

Robert Young of the Pontifical Catholic University in Brazil and

Rebecca West of the University of Lincoln in the United Kingdom used

a modified version of a test designed to determine that young humans

have such abilities. First the dog is shown a large treat, then a low

screen is p u t in front of it to block the dog’s view. While the dog

watches, the experimenter takes another treat, shows it to the dog, and

then lowers it down behind the screen. If the dog can count, he should

expect th a t when the screen is raised he should see two treats, and

sometimes he does. However, sometimes the experimenter secretly

removes one of the treats so that now when the screen is raised there

is only one t re a t visible. Thus instead of the expected 1 + 1=2, the

dog is presented with 1 + 1 = 1. Alternatively the experimenter can

secretly add an additional treat, giving the dog the result 1 + 1=3.

When any of the wrong answers appear, the dog reacts by staring at

the results for a much longer time than he does if the expected 1 + 1

= 2 appears. This is taken as evidence of surprise and puzzlement on

the p a r t of the dog, suggesting th a t he has done the mental addition

and know’s what the correct result should be. Such an ability would be

useful for mother dogs, which would then know if one or more of their

pups has gone missing from the litter, and by inference she would also

know how many of them were gone and must be found.

 

Creative experiment design. :) +1 for science

 

 

Recently a border collie named Rico was tested by Julia Fischer and

o ther psychologists at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary

Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. They found that he could u n d e r ­

stand over two hun d red words, most of w^hich corresponded to the

names of objects. Like a young human child, Rico would quickly form

a rough hypothesis about the meaning of a new word after a single

exposure by inferring th a t the new word is connected to an object he

is seeing for the first time. One example of this is learning by an exclu­

sionary principle. Suppose th a t we put out seven toys and say to Rico

“Go get the fram is.” Rico has never h ea rd the word “f ram is” before.

However, he goes out to the pile of objects and finds th a t he knows the

name of six of them. He then takes the next step and assumes that the

one he doesn’t recognize must be the framis. If we test him later, even

weeks later, with a new pile of objects th a t includes the one th a t we

labeled the framis, he will quickly identify it. This is a complex form of

language learning th a t th a t up to now we thought was possible only in

humans and language-learning apes.

 

One might wonder if this particular dog was super smart among her breed conspicifics.

 

 

The Chinese still tre a t meat from chow chows as a culinary delicacy.

According to popular folk belief, dogs with black coats are considered

to be more nutritious and to have better fat for frying. It is not difficult

to find dog farms, dog butchers, and restau rants th a t specialize in dog

meat throughout modern China and its neighboring countries. When

the Summer Olympic Games were held in Seoul, South Korea, in

1988, the government passed a temporary law forbidding re stau rants

in the city limits to serve dishes made with dog meat, fearing th a t such

menu items would offend th e ir Western visitors. Because of public

pressure, however, shortly after the Olympics had concluded, dog

dishes again became available, and dogs could again be seen hanging

in local butcher shops.

 

If you’re interested in dogs only as a food source, then the question

of the ir intelligence is moot. Who wants smar t food? What you want is

a slow-moving dog (who won’t b urn off much fat or become tough

through exercise or vigorous activity) th a t is not clever enough to make

itself h a rd to capture. Thus it is not surprising that the dogs primarily

used for food may well have been the re ta rdates of dogdom. It seems

th a t virtually every visitor to Polynesia and Micronesia who wrote

about the local poi dogs also commented on th eir absence of intelli­

gence. In A Voyage Around the World (written in 1777), for instance,

Johann Georg Adam Forster, one of the naturalists accompanying Cap­

tain Cook, described the dogs of Polynesia and the South Sea Islands

as “lazy” and “unintelligent.” Specifically, he commented:

 

This day we dined for the first time on a leg of it [dog] roasted, which

tasted so exactly like mutton, that it was absolutely indistinguishable.

. . . In New Zealand, and in the tropical isles of the South Sea, the dogs

are the most stupid, dull animals imaginable, and do not seem to have

the least advantage in point of sagacity over our sheep.

 

 

I have known dogs, especially puppies, who were almost

as stupid as humans in their mental reactions.

—ROBERT BENCHLEY

 

No source given. Not mentioned on Wikiquote. en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Robert_Benchley

 

Likely not genuine.

 

 

Before I describe what I learned about working or obedience intelli­

gence from these experts, I had best start with the caution th a t many

of them offered. All the judges recognized th a t there were definite dif­

ferences in the intelligence and trainability of the various breeds; how­

ever, they also noted th a t there is a lot of individual variation among

dogs. They noted th a t even in the dullest breeds, some dogs work

extremely well, while in some of the brightest breeds, certain individu­

als simply show no capacity to learn or perform. One judge told me, “A

lot has to do with the person training the dog. You can s ta r t with a

dumb breed and make them really quite clever if you are a good

enough trainer.” What this judge was actually describing was manifest

intelligence—th a t is, the sum total of all the dimensions of intelligence

th a t any dog displays. Ju s t like h uman beings, few dogs ever achieve

th e ir full psychological potential. The difference among the various

breeds, then, is how easily each can reach a certain level of perform­

ance and what the absolute maximum is th a t a dog of any given breed

may be expected to achieve. Good trainers can do a lot with any breed

of dog; they ju st find the job much easier if they s ta r t with one that has

high working and obedience intelligence.

 

Seems like a good paragraf to remember to quote in discussions of race and intellignece in humans.

 

 

In contemporary writing and discussions, it is considered rude,

biased, sexist, and politically incorre ct to refer to sex differences in

behavior, personality, or intelligence, especially in humans. Yet there

are clearly visible differences between male and female dogs (at least

for cer tain breeds) in terms of th e ir problem-solving and obedience

performance. Physically, males are often larger, stronger, and more

vigorous in th e ir activity th an the females. For some breeds, p a r t icu ­

larly Doberman pinschers and Labrador retrievers, the males perform

significantly better in problem-solving tests, such as those presented in

Chapter 9. Conversely, females of these breeds tend to do much better

in obedience and working tasks. One dog obedience judge, in listing

the top ten obedience breeds, noted next to his entry of Doberman pin­

schers, “females only, males tend to be too hard-headed and are more

difficult to control.” For some breeds, however, such as the poodle and

the English pointer, males are the “so f te r” sex and females are more

obstinate and difficult to train.

 

wud be interesting with more systematic data.

 

 

The case of the Cavalier King Charles spaniel is not unique. Pfaffen-

berger kept careful records during his systematic breeding p rogram

for guide dogs. Because each dog was tested for both personality and

intelligence, this gave a marvelous opportunity to see if these ch a ra c ­

teristics were genetically based. His records show that many personal­

ity characteristics, including the willingness to work for humans, are

carried genetically. The personality of a lit ter was directly predictable

from the personality of the sire and dam. Pfaffenberger scored the will­

ingness to work using a scale th a t ran from a low of 0 to a high of 5 to

keep track of the personalities of the various dogs. In one instance he

mated a dog named Odin who scored 5 on this dimension with a bitch,

Gretchen, who scored 4. If the temperaments of the parents were

passed on to the offspring, then all the re su ltan t puppies would have

temperaments falling between these values. Sure enough, when Pfaf­

fenberger administered tests to the six puppies, he found th a t four of

them scored 5 and the remaining two scored 4.

 

Seems to miss the regression to the mean, and that it might not be entirely polygenetic. But sure, it is mostly polygenetic and regression effects might be small.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regression_toward_the_mean

 

 

Deafness is more common in dogs than the casual pet owner might

recognize. Congenital hearing loss is mostly due to genetic factors. A

study by George Strain of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge

involving nearly seventeen thousand dogs confirmed th a t coat color is

associated with congenital deafness. The genetic defect that produces

deafness is closely linked with the genes th a t produce white coats,

roan (a dark color coat th a t has been liberally sprinkled with white),

merle (desaturated colors, especially where blacks become grays or

blues), and piebald (spotty, especially black and white) colors in dogs.

The classic example of a piebald dog is the Dalmatian. In this breed,

22 percent are deaf in one e ar and an additional 8 percent are deaf in

both ears, amounting to an amazing 30 percent born with some form

of hearing deficit. While all Dalmatians are more or less piebald, in

o ther breeds the white, roan, merle, or piebald genes are found in

some individuals but not others. In the bull terrier, for example, indi­

viduals can be either white o r can have prominent color patches.

Among those bull ter r iers who are white, the ra te of congenital deaf­

ness is 20 percent, while for those with color patches it is only around

1 percent.

 

www.aspca.org/pet-care/dog-care/deafness

 

apparently legit.

 

 

If you are systematic about teaching your dog his name, its sound

will capture the dog’s attention and he will look at you. This attention

is vital when you w an t to teach the dog something or get him to do

something. If you are not systematic about teaching a dog its name,

then the dog will most likely assume th a t its name is the sound th a t it

hears most frequently directed at it by its family. There was a cartoon

th a t captured this idea when it depicted two dogs meeting on the

street. One introduces himself to the o ther saying, “My name is ‘No,

No, Bad Dog.’ What’s yours?”

 

:p

 

 

During the late 1950s and early 1960s, psychologists made a star-

tling discovery. They found that, for many jobs, high intelligence is

actually a handicap, especially where work is quite repetitive, where

the same actions or decisions are required many times during the day,

where work is interspersed with long periods of relative inactivity, or

where the rate of work-related activity is slow. Under these conditions,

an individual with higher general intelligence is actually apt to p e r ­

form worse than one with lower intelligence on a day-to-day basis. Not

only will the b righte r person perform less well, b u t he or she will be

considerably less satisfied with the work and the job as a whole.

 

satisfaction might be lower, but the other is just wrong.

 

cf. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings.

Schmidt, Frank L.; Hunter, John E.

Psychological Bulletin, Vol 124(2), Sep 1998, 262-274. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.124.2.262

 

psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1998-10661-006

Review: Genes, Peoples, and Languages

www.goodreads.com/book/show/331816.Genes_Peoples_and_Languages

lib.free-college.org/search.php?search_type=magic&search_text=GENES%2C+PEOPLES+AND++LANGUAGES+&submit=Dig+for

 

I read it mostly becus i cudnt find his more critically acclaimed book online (www.goodreads.com/book/show/404414.The_History_and_Geography_of_Human_Genes).

 

The book is written in low-level nonfiction, i.e. very few academic sources cited. Lots of claims that require sources. While this is okay in the area the author is an expert, it fails hard in the later chapters. It is only worth reading for the parts about population genetics and linguistics.

 

 

Therefore, it is also worth gathering information froin any dis-

cipline that can provide even a partial answer to our problems.

Within genetics itself, we want to collect as much information about

as many genes as pOSSible, which would allow us to use the “law of

large numbers» in the calculation of probabilities: random events are

important in evolution, but despite their capriciousness, their behav-

ior can be accounted for through a large number of observations.

Jacques Bemoulli, in his A~ coTtjectandi of 1713, wrote, “Even the

stupidest of men, by some instinct of nature, is convinced on his own

that with more observations his risk of failure is diminished.

 

Predating Hume’s similar comments in his Enquiry. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An_Enquiry_Concerning_Human_Understanding

 

 

Any attempt at reconstructing human evolution presents the

same problems we encounter in historical research. Experimental

science allows us to test any hypothesis, no matter how unlikely, but

history cannot be repeated at will-even if it sometimes gives the

appearance of repeating itself. Nevertheless, historical and anthro-

polOgical analogies are often useful. When these offer independent

confirmation or supplementary evidence, they allow us to eliminate

or support a hypothesis. Multidisciplinary research provides, in a

way, a sort of replication of an event, which is generally possible

only in experimental science.

 

Exploring related diSCiplines can lead to rich discoveries. It was

with this intent that I have searched for, and often found, support

from fields such as linguistics, archeology, and demography. Just as

this approach yields positive results, it is also a source of great intel-

lectual satisfaction. The researcher sees the fundamental unity of

the sciences and their procedures.

 

Good thinking. The consilience of science is a kind of independent test.

 

 

Heterozygote Advantage

During the nineteenth century, the concept of racial purity

received much attention. The perfection of races or breeds is still

an important goal for animal breeders. Dog and cat shows establish,

often arbitrarily, an ideal of esthetic perfection, which trainers wish

to attain with their animals. This is frequently a counterproductive

effort. Breeders know that by seeking genetic purity through

repeated crossings between closely related animals-inbreeding-

they dangerously reduce the animals’ resistance to disease. The

revers&-outcrossing-is more desirable since racial mixing in all

species generally increases disease resistance and overall viability.

This phenomenon is known as “hybrid vigor.” When considering

the hybridization of a single gene, one speaks of heterozygote

advantage. A heterozygote is an individual who receives different

forms of a gene from father and mother.

 

The classic example of heterozygous advantage is sickle cell ane-

mia, which affects mostly, but not exclusively, Africans. Consider a

parallel example, common in people of southern European origin: a

gene responsible for a genetic disease called thalassemia, a severe

anemia that usually kills before reproductive age is reached. The

gene shows up in two slightly different forms, or alleles: normal N,

and abnormal T (causing thalassemia). There are three possible

genetic types:

 

NN: individuals who receive the normal gene N from both parents are

“normal” homozygote •.

NT: those who get a normal allele N from one parent and a thal-

assemia gene T from the other are heterozygote.. Like normal

homozygotes, they do not have the disease (but can be identified

through simple laboratory blood tests).

TT: persons who receive a thalassemia allele from both parents are

homozygote. for 1; the abnormal gene, and have the disease.

 

In some European populations, for instance in the Italian

province of Ferrara, located between Venice and Bologna, one of

approximately one hundred children is born with thalassemia.

Nearly all those afflicted die young. Heterozygotes are 18 percent of

the population and the rest, 81 percent, are normal homozygotes.

 

The important question is: why do so many people have the dis-

ease, since they inevitably die before they reach adulthood? They

are obviously at a selective disadvantage, and the disease should

disappear through natural selection. The reality is, however, more

complicated; the province of Ferrara has also beell affected for many

centuries by a highly lethal infectious disease, malaria. It so happens

that heterozygotes for thalassemia are resistant to it, although normal

homozygotes frequently succumb to the infections. The incidence of

malaria in the Ferrara region was so high ,until World War II, that

about one out of ten normal homozygotes died from it, while het-

erozygotes almost always survived it. Given these numbers and a few

calculations we might see that an equal proportion of N genes and of

T genes disappears at every generation, the first because of malaria

“and the second because of thalassemia. Therefore, until there is

malaria of sufficient strength, thalassemia remains at a stable fre-

quency in the population. The thalassemia allele gives the population

some protection from malaria: in fact, it saves 8.1 percent of the N

homozygotes who would otherwise die because of malaria, at the cost

of a smaller number of deaths (1 percent) because of thalassemia.

 

Useful account of situation to antiracist people since it comes from an antiracist.

 

 

The second explanation is that Europeans are the result of

genetic admixture, most probably resulting from migrations from

the two neighbOring continents, Africa and Asia. A calculation of

its genetic consequences fits exactly the data, as shown by Bowcock

et al. (1991). If we sought to determine the exact composition of

this mix, it appears that Europeans are about two-thirds Asian and

one-third Aflican. When would this mixture have occurred? The

data suggest a rather early date, on the order of 30,000 years. How

can we further test such an .explanation? It is a challenge that the

forthcoming data on new DNA markers may well answer.

 

One is reminded by Rushton’s r-T theory tables, showing that whites are closer to asians but almost always lie in the middle when it comes to all kinds of things.

 

Rushton’s table can be found here: en.metapedia.org/wiki/Differential_K_theory

 

Going with his 85, 100, 106 values for IQ, if europeans are 2/3rds asian and 1/3 african, they shud be at IQ 2/3*106≈71.02, 1/3*85≈28.05, i.e. 99.07. But then again, there seems no reason to prefer the value 85 for africans, since this is the value from the US, where blacks have some 20-25% european genes.

 

But it does fit the value remarkably well.

 

 

Principal components analysis had been invented in the thirties,

but had been applied only a few times, because of the staggering

amount of arithmetical work it reqUires. Before the invention of

computers, very few scientists were sufficiently determined to carry

out such an enormous number of computations. To use a concise

description velY unfair to the non-mathematical reader, it simplifies

the “data matrix.,” formed by the frequencies of the various alleles

of many genes, observed in many populations, by calculating the

eigenvectors of a few of its leading eigenvalues. It is difficult to

explain it to non-mathematicians, other than by saying that it

reduces the number of dimensions with which one can represent

the data, with a minimum loss of information.

 

This is correct, except that it wasnt invented in the 1930’s. It was invented by Spearman or Pearson earlier. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principal_component_analysis Wikigives the data 1901. Perhaps the 1930’s is when they realized that PCA is useful for population genetics and basically any science where one is looking for hidden patterns in the data.

 

 

In more recent times growth rates increased considerably: in

the last century alone, the world population grew from 1.6 to almost

6 billion, nearly 250 times the average rate during the Paleolithic.

We know that if the current pattern continues, the global popula-

tion could reach a very dangerous point in the coming decades.

Nature controls an excess of human bhths in three ways: epidemics,

famine, and war. All of these brakes seem to be at work today:

AIDS, an epidemic we still cannot control, is raging; extreme mal-

nutrition affects more than a billion people; and an unprecedented

number of civil and religiOUS wars is shaking the world. So far,

atomic bombs have not been used in these conflicts, but nothing

should prevent us frolll worrying that a Russian sciimtist or engi-

neer, reduced to unemployment and hunge.; Or a group of religiOUS

extremists working for a fundamentalist government, could place

the hUlllan species at dsk of a global Hiroshima.

 

AIDS doesnt kill very many people. It’s a very slow killer and doesn’t spread easily (bodily fluids only).

 

We dont have nearly enuf nuclear bombs to kill everything “global hiroshima”.

 

It is also wrong about the civil wars. In fact violence is declining, not rising. The media is misleading people with theor focus on bad news. Cf. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Better_Angels_of_Our_Nature

 

 

It is not easy to distinguish between relative contributions. The

similarity between two friends or between two individuals with a

more intimate relationship, .like a husband and wife who have lived

together for a very long period of time, are partly the expreSSion of

what the two have learned from each other and what may have

attracted them in the first place. These forces are often vel)’ strong,

and we sought to examine them by surveying a group of students

about similarities between husbands and wives, parents and chil-

dren, and between frie~ds. We asked about forty questions, and

queried the students about themselves and their parents, as well as

the parents about the students and themselves. On average, the

correlations (the similarities) between husbands and wives (the stu-

dents’ parents) were the greatest, followed by those between par-

ents and children, and finally between friends. The characteristics

studied addressed social activities, habits, leisure activities, super-

stitions, beliefs, and so on.

 

The first one is easily testable. If people grow more similar to each other as they age, then it cant be genetics alone. If they dont, then genetics+assortative mating is most likely the explanation.

 

 

It is always possible that some part of the Similarity between

parents and children has a genetic basis. The distinction between

biological and cultural transmission is not always an obvious one.

For example, it was long believed that the similarity between the

IQ of parents and children was entirely genetic in origin. The

famous British psycholOgist Sir Cyril Burt, undoubtedly carried

away by enthusiasm, even stooped so low as to publish false data to

“proven a genetic basis for IQ. It is thanks to the American psychol-

ogist Leon Kamin that Burt’s fraud was discovered.

 

Burts results are in agreement with modern data, making it unlikely that it was fraud. See also: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyril_Burt#.22The_Burt_Affair.22

 

Probably not fraudulent, but more careless than any scientist shud be. The data shud obviously have been published freely, not burned!

 

See also: Rushton, J.P. (2002). “New Evidence on Sir Cyril Burt: His 1964 Speech to the Association of Educational Psychologists“, Intelligence, 30, 555-567.

 

 

At the beginning of work on IQ, the French government asked

Alfred Binet to develop a method for identifying children with

mental handicaps in order to provide them with special schooling at

an early age. But it was primarily American psychologists who tried

to change Binet’s IQ scores into a measure of “pure” intelligence–

independent of the culture or social milieu in which the tests were

conducted. This misplaced enthusiasm led to several serious social

mistakes, of which not all have been corrected. The study of

adopted children was decisive in showing that cultural transmission

exerts a strong influence on the determination of IQ. American

studies in 1980 and 1981 established that only one-third of the vari-

ation in IQ among individuals was due to biological heredity.

Another third can be explained by cultural transmission, while the

last third appears mostly due to other unspecified, mostly random

differences in personal life experience. This is a far cry from the 80

or 90 percent genetic contribution suggested by Burt and his many

American colleagues. Similarly, Arthur jensen’s statement that the

low IQ average of African Amelicans relative to Whites is genetic

was contradicted by studies of Black children adopted by Whites in

England and the United States.

 

It is interesting how mislead Sforza can be here. Since the analysis of intelligence depends on the exact same mathematical tools he used himself! Factor Analysis!

 

He ofc cites no sources for these claims. If they are true at all, they are without a doubt child samples. The heritability of intelligence is known to increase with age, so if one wants to prove that intelligence isnt highly heritable and is susceptible to shared environment, all one has to do is rely on child samples. The younger the better. Not very interesting tho.

 

 

Theories about the role IQ plays in social stratification have

also been disproved. Some researchers have claimed, without real

evidence, that the difference in IQ observed between high and

low social classes was genetic, because people with a high IQ

automatically became part of the high soCial classes. A French

study on adoptions again showed that the difference was primarily

sociocultural and not genetic.

 

Historically, it is ironic that it is IQ researches who are accused of bad science! It was the strict environmentalists who kept using the useless research designs that cud not spot the difference between genes and environment.

 

 

There is probably still very widespread prejudice in America

concerning the low IQ of Black Americans: the majority is likely to

be still convinced that it is the result of a real genetic difference and

not of a strong social handicap that cannot be reversed in a short

time. Contrast the enthusiastic acceptance of the book The Bell

Curve and its racist message with the response to the information

that the average Japanese IQ is greater than that of White Ameri-

cans by 11 pOints, almost as much as the average difference between

White Americans and Black Americans. Then, the response was: it

is clear that American high schools are very bad.

 

I just read the bell curve. There is no mention that the Japanese average an IQ of 111. The usual figures are given which are around 105.

 

 

Adoption studies provide the best guarantee against the confu-

sion of biological and cultural transmissions, but these studies are dif-

ficult and costly, largely because there are so few subjects. The most

ambitious studies use ~dentical twins who have been raised sepa-

rately. But these studies are hampered by small samples and because

the very early environments of twins, pairs, and their rearing is not

always independent. But other methods exist that help limit confu-

sion between cultural and biological inheritance. For example, in the

case of religiOUS or political similarities between parents and chil-

dren, we used published research data comparing identical twins,

fraternal twins, and regular siblings. Fraternal twins should not

resemble each other more than regular siblings if biolOgical heredity

were the only important factor. In the case of religiOUS or political

creeds, the similarity between fraternal pairs was almost the same as

for identical twins, indicating that genetics plays no (or only a vel)’

small part) in this trait. Family background does have a major effect.

The purely or predominantly maternal transmission of some religiOUS

characteristics would be difficult to explain in a strictly biological way.

Maternal transmission exists for biolOgical characteristics deter-

mined by the mitochondrial genome. However, it would be very sur-

prising if tl,ese cytoplasmic organelles, which supply the cell’s energy,

had any effect on individual religiOUS beliefs.

 

The problems of these crude studies are easy to overcome when we get cheaper genome sequencing. The reason is this: When we say that siblings have 50% gene variation in common, this is only an average. In reality it varies. This variation per genetic theory will produce stronger and weaker correlations. So it shud be rather easy to settle the matter for good with such analysis.

 

Im fairly certain i got the idea from: occidentalascent.wordpress.com/ but i cant find the post.

Reading material on cognitive epidemiology

I recently got interested in a new field en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_epidemiology

Cognitive epidemiology is a field of research that examines the associations between intelligence test scores (IQ scores or extracted g-factors) and health, more specifically morbidity (mental and physical) and mortality. Typically, test scores are obtained at an early age, and compared to later morbidity and mortality. In addition to exploring and establishing these associations, cognitive epidemiology seeks to understand causal relationships between intelligence and health outcomes. Researchers in the field argue that intelligence measured at an early age is an important predictor of later health and mortality differences.[1][2]

I decided to scout the academic literature. Here’s some for those also curious.

Special issue of Intelligence, 2009, about cognitive epidemiology.

1. Introduction to the special issue on cognitive epidemiology

2. The association of childhood intelligence with mortality risk from adolescence to middle age Findings from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s cohor

3. Cognition and incident coronary heart disease in late midlife The Whitehall II study

4. Can we understand why cognitive function predicts mortality Results from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS)

5. Cognition and survival in a biracial urban population of old people

6. Fluid intelligence is independently associated with all-cause mortality over 17 years in an elderly community sample

7. Reaction time and established risk factors for total and cardiovascular disease mortality

8. IQ in childhood and the metabolic syndrome in middle age Extended follow-up of the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study

9. The association between IQ in adolescence and a range of health outcomes at 40 in the 1979 US National Longitudinal Study of Youth

10. Does a fitness factor contribute to the association between intelligence and health outcomes

11. Intelligence in childhood and risk of psychological distress in adulthood The 1958 National Child Development Survey and the 1970 British Cohort S

12. Level of cognitive performance as a correlate and predictor of health behaviors that protect against cognitive decline in late life The path through life study

13. Intelligence and persisting with medication for two years Analysis in a randomised controlled trial

14. How intelligence and education contribute to substance use Hints from the Minnesota Twin family study

15. Cognitive epidemiology With emphasis on untangling cognitive ability and socioeconomic status

Some other papers that i found:

Why is intelligence correlated with semen quality Biochemical pathways common to sperm and neuron function and their vulnerability to pleiotropic mutations

Why do intelligent people live longer

The relationships between cognitive ability and dental status in a national sample of USA adults

Rare Copy Number Deletions Predict Individual Variation in Intelligence

Looking for ‘System Integrity’ in Cognitive Epidemiology

Intelligence and semen quality are positively correlated

Intelligence Is It the Epidemiologists’ Elusive Fundamental Cause of Social Class Inequalities in Health

Does IQ explain socioeconomic inequalities in health Evidence from a population based cohort study in the west of Scotland

Cognitive epidemiology J Epidemiol Community Health-2007-Deary-378-84