Consider this set of propositions: P1. The sentence “The current king of France is bald.” expresses a proposition. P2. The sentence “The current king of France is not bald.” expresses a proposition. P3. The propositions expressed by the sentences “The current king of France is bald.”and “The current king of France is not bald.” are […]

“[W]hat follows from a true premiss must be true” (The Problems of Philosophy, p. 60, link) Wrote Russell as an example of a principle of logic that is more self-evident than the inductive principle. If we were to formalize this we would perhaps write it like this: E1. □[([∀P][Q∧Q⇒P])→P]1 Or perhaps just just in propositional […]

In Longman’s texts Talking about the present, and Talking about the Past it is claimed that some verbs cannot be used in the present and past progressive. But they can. Here is the list of verbs it is calimed that cannot be used: (to) be, have, see, believe, like, agree, know, love, disagree, recognize, hate, […]

What is the present progressive? It is a sentence form. Longman Dictionary of Comtemporary English explains it like this: “You make the present progressive by using a form of the verb be in the present tense, followed by the main verb with an  ing ending, for example l am waiting, she is coming.” Later in […]

Wikipedia on Jacqui Dean. “Jacqueline Isobel (Jacqui) Dean (born 13 May 1957 in Palmerston North) is a New Zealand politician and the current Member of Parliament for the Waitaki electorate.” (skip) “Party pills Jacqui Dean campaigned for the banning of the sale of “party pills”, namely Benzylpiperazine (BZP), over which Associate Health Minister Jim Anderton […]

I have encountered the following problem a couple of times. This problem is this: When formalizing something in predicate logic, the predicate uses propositions as variables.1 We may refer to this as the predicate acting upon the variable. The predicate is a function similar to functions in mathematics like “F(x) = x4”. Predicates were also […]

It is clear that when we use the phrase “It is possible that…” it is not in all cases used to express mere alethic possibility, that is, “It is logically possible that p.” [◊P] Other times it is used to express what is called epistemic possibility, that is, “For all we (or I) know p […]