Formalization of questions and answers is not a much discussed nor studied topic. Though there is a branch of logic dealing with it, erotetic logics. I admit not to have read much on the issue, in fact, almost nothing. This is because there is almost nothing on the internet about it, and the few books […]

Kennethamy “A human being is a biological category, and can be defined by human DNA, it seems to me. The category, person, is not biological, and maybe your teacher is confusing “human beings” with “persons”. All human beings need not be persons. For example, small infants are not yet persons. “Person” is a legal and […]

One may talk of a reliable car. “Reliable” here clearly means a car that has a high success rate of doing what it is supposed to (e.g. getting one where one wants to go in a reasonable time). One may also talk of a reliable source of information, that is, an authority. Can we understand […]

“Although I generally prefer negative theories – those which posit as few unempirical concepts* as possible – my own leanings in this particular case are toward Realism. My attraction to the theory is bolstered by one further consideration: I can see no way to account for the existence of certain items, e.g. pieces of music, […]

ACB: This is an interesting point. Is there a minimum level of understanding that someone must have in order to derive justification from an authority? For example, if you are completely ignorant of music theory, and a qualified musician tells you: “A tritone is an augmented fourth or a diminished fifth”, are you justified in […]

ACB: 1. S knows that every statement in his geography textbook is correct. (His well-qualified geography teacher has told him: “I have checked this book carefully, and everything in it is correct”. The teacher is right, and S believes him.) 2. One of the statements in the textbook is that Quito is the capital of […]

Some people think that the identity notion is captured by the second proposal above. I think we need two notions of identity. I will not discuss that now. Strict identity For all things, for all things, for all predicates, that x and y are strictly identical logically implies that that x has predicate F is […]

Merely a translation of the danish version here. Translation keys Domains D:x = things D:y = things D:t = moments One variable predicates Ex = x exists At = the world was created at time t Two variable predicates Cxy = x created y Three variable predicates Kxyt = x created y at time t […]

Sometimes it is clear that “always” should be interpreted as various temporal logics suggest. Other times it should not be interpreted as anything that has to do with time. Consider this fictive conversation: “Generally women prefer men with high social above men without.” “Not always.” But the first utterance has nothing to do with time. […]