This post is mainly meant to be used as a thing that I can copypaste when I need to. I’m tired of having to find the same links over and over again to different people. So, I will just post it once here and copy it from here the next time.
Intelligence research is much misunderstood and is controversial within the general public. Most of the misconceptions that people have are due to them simply never taking the time to read anything about the subject. Not even the base minimum of reading the relevant Wikipedia articles. Below I have listed some papers and books on the subject that I consider introductory. These explain what IQ is, what intelligence is, what the g-factor is, how to measure it, and why it matters with many examples.
Very short (10 pages)
Longer (54 pages)
Gottfredson, L. S. (1997). Why g matters: The complexity of everyday life. Intelligence, 24(1), 79-132.
Useful follow-up to the above (21 pages).
Gottfredson, L. S. (2002). Where and why g matters: Not a mystery. Human Performance, 15(1/2), 25-46.
More politically correct version of Gottfredson 1997:
Longer and sociologically focused
Robert A. Gordon. (1997) Everyday life as an intelligence test: Effects of intelligence and intelligence context. Intelligence, Volume 24, Issue 1, January–February 1997, Pages 203–320.
Light introduction to basic concepts. Useful for those not strong in math.
Very long and technical (660 pages)