The S factor in the British Isles: A reanalysis of Lynn (1979)

Read the study PDF.

Emil O. W. Kirkegaard, Ulster Institute for Social Research. Email:

I reanalyze data reported by Richard Lynn in a 1979 paper concerning IQ and socioeconomic variables in 12 regions of the United Kingdom as well as Ireland. I find a substantial S factor across regions (66% of variance with MinRes extraction). I produce new best estimates of the G scores of the regions. The correlation of these with the S scores is .79. The MCV correlation with reversal is .47.

Key words: intelligence, IQ, cognitive ability, inequality, S factor, British isles, inequality, ecology of intelligence, sociology of intelligence, cognitive sociology

Main figures

R Notebook:


This paper was updated in March 2017 to make it more readable and improve the quality of the figures. The original code was used and the numbers were reproduced, except for the MCV analysis which for unknown reasons changed from r = .47 to r = .49.

Views All Time
Views All Time
Views Today
Views Today