One may talk of a reliable car. “Reliable” here clearly means a car that has a high success rate of doing what it is supposed to (e.g. getting one where one wants to go in a reasonable time). One may also talk of a reliable source of information, that is, an authority. Can we understand […]

“Although I generally prefer negative theories – those which posit as few unempirical concepts* as possible – my own leanings in this particular case are toward Realism. My attraction to the theory is bolstered by one further consideration: I can see no way to account for the existence of certain items, e.g. pieces of music, […]

ACB: This is an interesting point. Is there a minimum level of understanding that someone must have in order to derive justification from an authority? For example, if you are completely ignorant of music theory, and a qualified musician tells you: “A tritone is an augmented fourth or a diminished fifth”, are you justified in […]

ACB: 1. S knows that every statement in his geography textbook is correct. (His well-qualified geography teacher has told him: “I have checked this book carefully, and everything in it is correct”. The teacher is right, and S believes him.) 2. One of the statements in the textbook is that Quito is the capital of […]

Some people think that the identity notion is captured by the second proposal above. I think we need two notions of identity. I will not discuss that now. Strict identity For all things, for all things, for all predicates, that x and y are strictly identical logically implies that that x has predicate F is […]

Merely a translation of the danish version here. Translation keys Domains D:x = things D:y = things D:t = moments One variable predicates Ex = x exists At = the world was created at time t Two variable predicates Cxy = x created y Three variable predicates Kxyt = x created y at time t […]

Sometimes it is clear that “always” should be interpreted as various temporal logics suggest. Other times it should not be interpreted as anything that has to do with time. Consider this fictive conversation: “Generally women prefer men with high social above men without.” “Not always.” But the first utterance has nothing to do with time. […]

Kennethamy: What is it for something to be logical? So many threads ask whether this or that is logical. Is probability logical? Are moral arguments logical? And so on. I never know what it is being asked by such questions. Is there something clear and specific that is being asked by the question, is X […]

Primary truth bearers are the kind of entities that are always true or false. This is in contrast to secondary truth bearers that are only sometimes true or false. It seems possible that there are no primary truth bearers but that there are two or more secondary (= non-primary) truth bearers. All the theories that […]

“A speaker of the language should be able to pronounce correctly any sequence of letters that he may meet, even if they were previously unknown, and secondarily, to be able to spell any phonemic sequence, again even if previously unknown.” -Archibald A. Hill, distinguished U.S. linguist. I have not been able to confirm the source. […]