There is often some confusion surrounding the terms: belief, disbelief, agreement and disagreement when used in a philosophical context. We need to keep in mind that normal dictionary definitions are often not precise enough to be used in a philosophical context where precision and clarity are essential. (For analytic philosophy.) In this article I will […]

A quick explanation of two types of certainty that people tend to confuse. The first is the one we typically mean in natural language. It’s called psychological certainty. It’s a feeling of certainty; A confidence in something. This is the one we’re talking about when we say things like “Are you 100% sure?”. It is […]

Inspired by reading of David Hume’s Enquiry concerning the principles of Morals (EPM) edited by Tom L. Beauchamp.1 “Hume is often interpreted as arguing that no value judgment–however extreme, obscene, or cruel–is reasonable or unreasonable, just as no value judgment is factual. This interpretation needs careful assessment. A passion is ‘unreasonable’ for Hume not because […]

Intro and types I’ve been paying very close attention as of late to a special type of discourse: Namely, about what is possible and what is impossible. This study has led me to be very careful about my language use when speaking of such things because there are multiple types of possibilities: Logical, epistemic, physical, […]

Contraries If one looks in a general dictionary one will not a find a definition of contrary that is philosophically useful.i I looked the word up in a philosophical dictionary but that was not satisfied with the provided definition: A pair of categorical propositions which (provided that we assume existential import) cannot both be true, […]

Copyright © Norman Swartz 1994 URL This revision: April 9, 1994 Department of Philosophy Simon Fraser University These notes may be freely reproduced, in whole or in part, provided the copyright notice and URL (above) are preserved on the copy. Any other reproduction is illegal. Philosophy as a Blood Sport Preface This essay was […]

I’ve heard that claim, but do you think it is true? I don’t. All LPoEs (Logical Problem of Evil’s) can be seen as an inconsistent set of propositions. Here’s a really simple version: Simple LPoE: 1. God is all-good. 2. God is all-powerful. 3. God is all-knowledgeable. 4. If god is all-good, all-powerful and all-knowledgeable, […]

  ————– Introduction In this essay I will explore the two major competing nomenclatures concerned with the definition of atheism, theism and agnosticism. Then I will argue that the new nomenclature is to be preferred. Then I discuss various issues with atheism/theism and agnosticism. After that I reveal a questionnaire that one can use to […]