Interpretation of “always”

Sometimes it is clear that “always” should be interpreted as various temporal logics suggest. Other times it should not be interpreted as anything that has to do with time.

Consider this fictive conversation:

“Generally women prefer men with high social above men without.”

“Not always.”

But the first utterance has nothing to do with time. When “not always” is uttered in such contexts it means the same as the phrase “not in all cases [¬(∀x)(Fx)/(∃x)(¬Fx)]”. Similarly with other temporal words such as “often” (in many cases) and “never” (¬(∃x)(Fx)/(∀x)(¬Fx)).

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