Some of the best psychology related to intelligence and other applications have been conducted by the Anglo-sphere military. I don’t actually know much about the research that has been conducted by other industrialized nations, but presumably they have done some, and published it in the local languages, thus why I haven’t seen much reference to it. I know of a few Danish reports, which I will also link below. This post is more of a literature pointer than a summary in words. See also Wikipedia.

There is a journal for this topic too:

US military

By far the most research is done using US data. This summary is not remotely close to exhaustive. One can easily find various papers with US data by searching for the names of the tests used: ASVAB/AFQT, Army Alpha/Beta (WW1), and a few more specialized variants like

UK military

Canadian military

Danish military

  • Kousgaard, E. (2003). 50 år med intelligensprøven BPP. Forsvarsakademiet, Institut for militærpsykologi.
  • Teasdale, T. W. (2009). The Danish draft board’s intelligence test, Børge Priens Prøve: psychometric properties and research applications through 50 years. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 50(6), 633-638.
  • Teasdale, T. W., Hartmann, P. V., Pedersen, C. H., & Bertelsen, M. (2011). The reliability and validity of the Danish Draft Board cognitive ability test: Børge Prien’s Prøve. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 52(2), 126-130.

French military

  • Montmollin, M.D. (1958). Le niveau intellectuel des recrues du contingent. Population
    13(2): 259–268. http://doi.org/10.2307/1524820

Mixed

  • Koppes, L. L. (Ed.). (2014). Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. Psychology Press.
    • Mostly not about military psychology, but has some chapters on it